You usually associate the word â€˜criticalâ€™ with fault
finding. However, it also means â€˜characterized by careful
evaluation and judgmentâ€™. Reasoning means â€˜thinking that
is coherent and logicalâ€™. When combined, it means to arrive
at an interpretation after thinking logically.
What is the connection between Aristotle and John Venn?
The former is the founder of the type of logic called Syllogisms and the latter is the originator of the set theory.
BASIC TERMINOLOGY IN CRITICAL REASONING (CR):
A PREMISE is that which forms the
basis of an argument. It is explicitly stated in the
sentence/passage. There can exist more than one premise. A
series of premises will lead to a conclusion.
AN ASSUMPTION is an unstated premise. Hence, it is always implied. A valid assumption is that which takes you to the conclusion. A flawed assumption is one that is a weak cause for the resultant effect (conclusion) or one that hinges on a false analogy or non-representative statistic.
A CONCLUSION is the resting point of the argument. It is something that is explicitly stated in the passage. The common pointers to a conclusion are- hence, so, thus, therefore etc.
AN INFERENCE is the conclusion implied in the passage. It is that which you deduce one step away, not ten steps away from the passage.
Let us take an example:
The natural world- including our water and air â€"is our most vital and essential legacy. Therefore, it must be protected from those who despoil it for short-term profit. The first sentence is the premise and the last sentence is the conclusion. Assumption: Greedy humans unhesitatingly destroy the non â€" defensive natural world. Inference: The destruction of the natural world means diminishing our important inheritance.
Structure of a CR passage and the questions that follow it Let us note the length and structure of a typical CR passage. It consists of 50-80 words, carefully worded, with no redundancies. It is accompanied questions which are generally of the following types:
Let us take a few examples:
â€œWith the rapid invasion of our lives by the electronic media, sound engineering as a profession has an infinite scope and offers an aspirant several avenues of employment.â€
An assumption which is made in this statement is â€" the rapid advancements in the electronic media has been influential in bringing forth sound engineering as an employment option.
Night Shyamalanâ€™s second movie Unbreakable which again features Bruce Willis , is slated to hit the theatres on Friday. Judging by the immense success of his first movie, The sixth Sense, which has a sterling performance by Bruce Willis, this movie is expected to do well at the box office. Which of the following weakens the argument in the passage?
The entire process not take you long, though on paper it appears to be so. However, it prepares you to tackle any question that is asked of you Look at the question now -â€œWhich of the following weakens the given condition?â€
Let us now look at the options one by one.
Sindhudurg is serene beach resort some 400 kilometres off Mumbai. There is no direct transportation to Sindhudurg. The nearest railway station to sindhudurg is a 3 hour bumpy ride in an auto rickshaw or a tempo. You can stay in the shanties which provide minimal amenities, however the experience of peace and bliss will make you go back to the place, The welcome Group of hotels is planning to build a couple of resorts along the beach with regular bus services to the nearest railway station. They are advertising it as â€œCome experience the bliss of paradise in sindhudurg, Heaven on Earthâ€. Sindhudurg will soon cease to be the perfect haven as tourists and vacationers start pouring in making it just another beach resort. Which of the following is an assumption made in the passage?